Mental health risk screening: factor structure due to sociodemographic characteristics during COVID-19

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Silvia Morales Chainé
Alejandra López Montoya
Alejandro Bosch Maldonado
Ana Gisela Beristain Aguirre
Rebeca Robles García
Claudia Lydia Treviño Santacruz
Germán Palafox Palafox
Carmen Fernández Cáceres


Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with mental health symptoms.

Objective: to screen mental health symptoms by validating the factor structure of the screening test related to sociodemographic variables during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Method: we worked with 36,811 Mexican (M = 34 years; SD = 11.68), 61.8% (22,743) women, 15.3% (5,643) losing loved ones, 12.7% (4,683) having a COVID-19 condition, and 8.22% (3,027) sought remote psychological care. We required participants to answer the Posttraumatic Stress Checklist (PCL-C), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), Goldberg’s Generalized Anxiety Questionnaire, Health Anxiety, and Somatization tests in a WebApp.

Results: the Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated good factor structures and measurement invariances of the scales because of participants´ sociodemographic characteristics and their structural equation model.

Discussion: therefore, Women showed re-experimentation, numbing, anxiety, and somatization symptoms. Grieving or suffering a COVID-19 condition associated with generalized anxiety. People seeking psychological care reported somatization symptoms. Also, avoidance predicted symptoms of re-experimentation, and re-experimentation predicted health anxiety. Health anxiety predicted somatization, depression, and generalized anxiety, denoted by hyperarousal symptoms. Depression predicted numbing and hyperarousal symptoms.

Conclusions: there are mental health risks in women, people with loved-one losses, those with a COVID-19 condition, or people seeking psychological care. Future research will show how early interventions interrupt mental health risks associated with the pandemic.

mental health ,  screening ,  CFA ,  measurement invariance ,  COVID-19
Published: May 15, 2023

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How to Cite
Morales Chainé S, López Montoya A, Bosch Maldonado A, Beristain Aguirre AG, Robles García R, Treviño Santacruz CL, Palafox Palafox G, Fernández Cáceres C. Mental health risk screening: factor structure due to sociodemographic characteristics during COVID-19. RIIAD [Internet]. 2023 May 15 [cited 2023 Sep. 23];9(1):61-79. Available from:
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